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查看     | 回复 1 雅思IELTS 阅读中如何突破 Heading题

SummerLin

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              雅思IELTS 阅读中如何突破 Heading题




在雅思听力和阅读考试中,到处都是对同义替换paraphrase的考察。口语和写作虽是output输出,也要求考生展现多样化词汇,不能一再重复。



下面我试举一例,同义替换在阅读部分,List of Heading题中的具体运用,方便同学们理解,并学习尝试找到匹配的paraphrase词汇,来提高heading题的准确率


以剑桥10 Test 1 为例  (Cambridge 10 - Test 1 - Passage 2)

选项如下:



  i   A fresh and important long-term goal 
  ii 
Charging for roads andimproving other transport methods
 
  iii 
Changes affecting the distances goods may be transported



  iv  Taking all the steps necessary to change transport patterns
  v  The environmental costs of road transport
  vi  The escalating cost of rail transport


  vii  The need to achieve transport rebalance
  viii  The rapid growth of private transport
  ix  Plans to develop major road networks



  x  Restricting road use through charging policies alone 
  xi  Transport
trends in countriesawaiting EU admission



Topic:    European Transport Systems 1990-2010

文章每段 主题句 topic sentence 如下:


(viii)  段落A.  For passenger transport, the determining factor is the spectacular growth in car use. The number of cars on European Union (EU) roads saw an increase of three million cars each year from 1990 to 2010. 

解析:本句讲“在欧盟国家私家车的使用在1990-2010年间,以每年300万台的数量急速增加”。选项 viii 里的 rapid growth = spectacular growth increase, private transport = car use.


________________________________________________________


(iii)段落B.  growth is due to a large extent to changes in the European economy and its system of production. 此句提到货物运输的增长主要由于欧洲经济和制造系统的变化革新



解析:几处变化后文有例证:1.“internal frontier ...abolished”;

2. “EU has moved from a stock economy to a flow economy”;

3. “relocation of some industries”等。


末句提到 以上几处变化引起的结果“ the production site is hundreds or even thousands of kilometers away from ...(生产地距离 组装地或用户有几百甚至几千公里)”.


而选项 iii 里 changes affecting the distances goods may be transported  (影响货物运输距离的一些变化) 正好与本段核心一一呼应。


________________________________________________________


(xi)段落C.  The strong economic growth expected in countries which are candidates for entry to the EU will also increase transport flows,

解析: 在等候加入欧盟的那些国家里,预期的经济增长将会使交通运输也有所增加。

段中有具体的 变化趋势In 1998, some countries exported more than twice... and imported more than five times...many candidates countries inherited a transport system

选项xi 里“awaiting EU admission”= candidates for entry to EU. trends 对应变化趋势。

因此选 xi. Transpotation trends in countries awaiting EU admission.

________________________________________________________

(i) 段落D. However, a new imperative - sustainable development - offers an opportunity for adapting the EUs common transport policy. This objective, agreed by... 


解析: 此段主题句讲“一种新型的、极为重要的可持续发展模式 为适应欧盟的交通运输公约提供了契机。 而这一目标,也被...同意和接纳”。

选项 i 里面的 fresh = new,  important = imperative,  long-term 对应 sustainable

goal =objective. 从这几组完美契合的同义替换来看,选项必然是i 了。


________________________________________________________


(v)段落E. In 1998, energy consumption in the transport sector was to blame for 28% of emissions of CO2, the leading green house gas.

解析:此句说“交通运输中的能源消耗所带来的二氧化碳,占全部排放量的28%”

emissions from transport ... increase by 50% to 1,113 billion tonnes by 2020, compared with 790 billion tonnes in 1990. 


通过这一系列数字表明 公路运输 所带来的 环境的负面影响/ 代价。 而选项 v中,“the environmental costs of road transport ”恰与此呼应。

大家需要注意,选项vi里,escalating cost of rail transport 是干扰项。这个是“高度相似,选其一”原则。本段显然没有提到铁路运输


________________________________________________________


(x)段落G.  The first approach would consist of focusing on road transport solely through pricing. In the short term it might curb the growth in road transport...

解析:本句提出 第1个方法主要是通过调控价格,并且短期内它可能会阻碍公路发展。


选项 X. Restricting road use through charging policies alone

其中的 restricting = curb,  charging = pricing,  alone = solely 均为一一对应的同义替换。


________________________________________________________


(ii)段落H.  The second approach also concentrates on road transport pricing but is accompanied by measures to increase the efficiency of the other modes.

解析:第2个方法通过向公路收费,并同时提高其他交通方式的效率


选项 ii 中 charging for roads = road transport pricing,

improve other methods = increase the efficiency


________________________________________________________


(iv)  段落I.  The third approach, which is not new, comprises a series of measures ranging from pricing to revitalising alternative modes of transport and targeting investment...


解析此句说第3个方法包含一系列措施,包括价格调控、复兴其他运输方式,以及投资等...

选项iv中,taking all the steps = comprises a series of measures,

change transport patterns = revitalising alternative modes of transport.

以上就是关于本文每个段落的heading的详细解析,规律很明显。基本每段都是首句为主题句,而且选择标题的依据基本都是依据同义替换



________________________________________________________



  往期文章链接:



雅思口语 实用表达  ^_^



考场应急  实用短语+句型1


考场救急  实用句型2

应试口语提分策略1

应试口语提分策略2

雅思口语提分 地道词汇表达(上)

雅思口语提分 地道词汇表达(下)


写作  ^_^


雅思IELTS A类图表题--线形图 & 柱状图(1)


A类小作文之--扇形图、流程图、表格及图形题

雅思IELTS G类书信词汇及模板句型


雅思写作  8-9分 范文  ^_^


Topic 1--- working from home

Topic 2 --- Reduce crime


Topic 3 --- Allocate higher positions to female employees

Topic 4- Choosing employees by job interviews



听力 ^_^



听力快速提分(1)

听力快速提分 (2)

听力题中如何快速破解干扰项?



阅读 ^_^


阅读快速提分 Lecture (1)--填空题

阅读快速提分 Lecture (2) T / F /NG题

阅读快速提分 Lecture (3)--Matching 题

阅读如何得高分 Lecture (4)--选择题

阅读快速突破高分 Lecture (5)-- Heading题

阅读中如何突破 Heading 题

********************************************


雅思写作 地道高分短语 30天攻克计划


Lecture 1 ------- Environment

Lecture 2 ------ Government

Lecture 3 ------ Education

Lecture 4 ---- Health


lecture 5 --- Science & Technology


Lecture 6 ----- Media


Lecture 7 ----Traffic & Transport

Lecture 8 ----- Work



SummerLin 最后编辑于 2019-05-14 23:36:08

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