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查看     | 回复 4 美疾控中心:新冠病毒去年12月中就在美国出现

东门吹牛

东门吹牛
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目前,美国新冠肺炎确诊病例超过1350万,死亡病例正逐渐逼近27万。美国媒体11月30日报道说,刚刚过去的11月,美国多项疫情数字不断出现新的纪录。而在今年的最后一个月,还会出现更高的纪录。面对疫情数字的冲高和由疫情引发的困境逐渐显现,美国确实压力山大。

报道说,在疫苗大规模投入使用前,美国还要经历更糟糕的时期。根据美国疾控中心的预计,到12月中,美国死亡病例可能达到321000例。

美国疾控中心研究显示 新冠病毒去年12月中就在美国出现

据美国《华尔街日报》报道,美国疾控中心研究人员11月30日发表在《临床传染病》杂志上的一项研究显示,根据对美国9个州的居民献血样本的检测,早在2019年12月中旬,新冠病毒就已经在美国出现,这比美国官方报告的第一例美国本土确诊病例还要早一个月,比中国正式确认新冠病毒早数周。

在这项研究中,美国红十字会将收集于2019年12月13日至2020年1月17日的全美9个州居民的7389个献血样本提供给美国疾控中心。结果显示,有106个发现了新冠病毒抗体,说明病毒感染于2019年12月就在美国出现。

报道说,越来越多的证据表明新冠病毒在中国境外出现的时间要早于先前的认知。此外,研究还发现新冠病毒不仅比之前已知的更早在美国出现,而且病毒在美国的传播比检测结果表明的还要广泛得多。

医生:医患压力大 乱象令人沮丧

在严重的新冠肺炎疫情下,美国多地的医疗机构和人员压力巨大,而患者们的境遇同样堪忧,心理压力巨大。近日一张美国医生抱住一名哭泣的老年新冠肺炎患者的照片就受到了关注。照片上的医生日前在接受美国有线电视新闻网采访时说,医院里患者崩溃的场景经常出现,而美国人员聚集、不戴口罩等乱象仍然多发,这让本就疲惫不堪的医务人员异常沮丧。

这张照片拍摄于美国休斯敦的联合纪念医疗中心。照片中的医生名叫约瑟夫·瓦龙。瓦龙说,当时照片中的老年患者难以抑制对家人的想念,崩溃痛哭。

休斯敦联合纪念医疗中心主任医生 约瑟夫·瓦龙:当时这名老年患者想离开他的病房,我发现他在哭,然后我走过去问他为什么哭。他告诉我,他想跟他的妻子在一起。所以我就给了他一个拥抱。很多病人在这里都感觉难受,一些病人也会哭,还有些病人会尝试逃跑。

美国疫情一直在不断恶化,入院人数也在11月出现新高,医护人员疲惫不堪。约瑟夫·瓦龙说,他已经连续工作了8个多月。但自己的辛苦似乎并没有得到重视。在美国,人员聚集、不戴口罩的乱象到现在仍然不断出现,这令人沮丧。

休斯敦联合纪念医疗中心主任医生 约瑟夫·瓦龙:我已经连续工作256天了,我不知道是什么支撑着我,也不知道为什么我没倒下。我现在就是感到沮丧,我日复一日在这里治疗病患,但是医院外面的人却在做着错的事情。人们在酒吧、在餐馆,这太疯狂了。就好像我在不停工作,但是外面的人就是不听话,最后他们都来了我的重症监护室。

受疫情冲击影响 大量租户面临被驱逐困境

新冠肺炎疫情严重冲击美国民生,由于经济状况不佳,美国越来越多租户无力支付房租。

据美国哥伦比亚广播公司报道,46岁的塔万达·摩门10月份因拖欠房租被迫搬出在克利夫兰租住的公寓。摩门8月因感染新冠肺炎入院治疗,由于健康问题她也没有办法工作。摩门说她拖欠房租,是因为得先用钱来买食物。自从被驱逐后,她只能一直寄住在朋友和亲戚家里,自己变得一无所有。

单亲妈妈哈娅特·史密斯可能会陷入更艰难的境地。疫情之后,她的工作时间大幅减少,收入锐减,自8月以来她就已无法按时支付房租。她担心很快自己和孩子会流落街头。

美国租户 哈娅特·史密斯:一想到要流落街头,就觉得特别可怕。我想要的不过是自己和孩子有个地方住。

美国面临类似困境的租户还有很多。在各州禁止疫情期间驱逐租户的禁令陆续过期后,美国疾控中心曾发布一项全国性指令,要求年底前暂时禁止驱逐拖欠房租的租房者,以减少新冠病毒传播。但是,据报道,很多州的房东对该指令并不认可,仍有大量租户被驱逐。而该指令将在12月31日到期。同时新的疫情纾困方案前景不明。美国全国低收入住房联盟主席戴安·延捷利警告称,到明年1月20日,美国可能会陷入一场“历史性的驱逐危机。”

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brubo

brubo
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Health Equity Considerations and Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups

Long-standing systemic health and social inequities have put many people from racial and ethnic minority groups at increased risk of getting sick and dying from COVID-19. The term “racial and ethnic minority groups” includes people of color with a wide variety of backgrounds and experiences. But some experiences are common to many people within these groups, and social determinants of health have historically prevented them from having fair opportunities for economic, physical, and emotional health. [1]


There is increasing evidence that some racial and ethnic minority groups are being disproportionately affected by COVID-19. [2], [3], [4], [5], [6] Inequities in the social determinants of health, such as poverty and healthcare access, affecting these groups are interrelated and influence a wide range of health and quality-of-life outcomes and risks.[1] To achieve health equity, barriers must be removed so that everyone has a fair opportunity to be as healthy as possible.

Factors that contribute to increased risk
Some of the many inequities in social determinants of health that put racial and ethnic minority groups at increased risk of getting sick and dying from COVID-19 include:

Discrimination: Unfortunately, discrimination exists in systems meant to protect well-being or health. Examples of such systems include health care, housing, education, criminal justice, and finance. Discrimination, which includes racism, can lead to chronic and toxic stress and shapes social and economic factors that put some people from racial and ethnic minority groups at increased risk for COVID-19.[5], [7], [8], [9]
Healthcare access and utilization: People from some racial and ethnic minority groups are more likely to be uninsured than non-Hispanic whites. [10] Healthcare access can also be limited for these groups by many other factors, such as lack of transportation, child care, or ability to take time off of work; communication and language barriers; cultural differences between patients and providers; and historical and current discrimination in healthcare systems. [11] Some people from racial and ethnic minority groups may hesitate to seek care because they distrust the government and healthcare systems responsible for inequities in treatment [12] and historical events such as the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the African American Male and sterilization without people’s permission. [13], [14], [15], [16]
Occupation: People from some racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately represented in essential work settings such as healthcare facilities, farms, factories, grocery stores, and public transportation. [17] Some people who work in these settings have more chances to be exposed to the virus that causes COVID-19 due to several factors, such as close contact with the public or other workers, not being able to work from home, and not having paid sick days. [18]
Educational, income, and wealth gaps: Inequities in access to high-quality education for some racial and ethnic minority groups can lead to lower high school completion rates and barriers to college entrance. This may limit future job options and lead to lower paying or less stable jobs. [19] People with limited job options likely have less flexibility to leave jobs that may put them at a higher risk of exposure to the virus that causes COVID-19. People in these situations often cannot afford to miss work, even if they’re sick, because they do not have enough money saved up for essential items like food and other important living needs.
Housing: Some people from racial and ethnic minority groups live in crowded conditions that make it more challenging to follow prevention strategies. In some cultures, it is common for family members of many generations to live in one household. In addition, growing and disproportionate unemployment rates for some racial and ethnic minority groups during the COVID-19 pandemic[19] may lead to greater risk of eviction and homelessness or sharing of housing.
These factors and others are associated with more COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in areas where racial and ethnic minority groups live, learn, work, play, and worship.[5],[10], [20], [21] They have also contributed to higher rates of some medical conditions that increase one’s risk of severe illness from COVID-19. In addition, community strategies to slow the spread of COVID-19 may cause unintentional harm, such as lost wages, reduced access to services, and increased stress, for some racial and ethnic minority groups. [22]

What We Can Do
The COVID-19 pandemic may change some of the ways we connect and support each other. As individuals and communities respond to COVID-19 recommendations and circumstances (e.g., school closures, workplace closures, social distancing), there are often unintended negative impacts on emotional well-being such as loss of social connectedness and support. Shared faith, family, and cultural bonds are common sources of social support. Finding ways to maintain support and connection, even when physically apart, can empower and encourage individuals and communities to protect themselves, care for those who become sick, keep kids healthy, and better cope with stress.

Community- and faith-based organizations, employers, healthcare systems and providers, public health agencies, policy makers, and others all have a part in helping to promote fair access to health. To prevent the spread of COVID-19, we must work together to ensure that people have resources to maintain and manage their physical and mental health, including easy access to information, affordable testing, and medical and mental health care. We need programs and practices that fit the communities where racial and minority groups live, learn, work, play, and worship.

hi乔治

hi乔治
     3 楼
美國《華爾街日報》11月30日報道這項研究,稱在含有抗體的血液樣本中,39份於12月13日至16日來自加州、俄勒岡州與華盛頓州,另外67份於12月30日至1月17日來自麻省、密歇根州、威斯康辛州、艾奧瓦州、康涅狄格州與羅德島州。

研究人員的發現顯示,病毒感染的情況,在2019年12月中已發生美國西岸。

brubo

brubo
     4 楼

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