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Five Basic Grammar Terms

1.
Clause
从句: a
set
of
words

a)
Independent
Clause:
独立从句

A set of wordswith a SUBJECT and a VERB that creates a Complete Thought or a CompleteSentence 独立分句有主语和动词构成,表达了一个完整的意思,可以被单独作为句子

b)
Dependent
Clause:
从属分句

A set of words that contains a SUBJECT and a VERB, but that DOES NOTcreate a

Complete Thought or Complete Sentence.

例句:Althoughshe was not hungry (Dependent Clause), she ate dinner with her parents(independent clause) .

例题:

1.
Nikola Tesla, the inventorof alternating current, because he was excited with
the

prospects of harnessing Niagara Falls forproducing electric power, he
predicted in the mid-1890's thatelectricity generated at Niagara would one daypower the streetcars of London and the streetlights of Paris.

A.
Nikola Tesla, the inventorof alternating current, because he was excited with
the prospects of harnessing Niagara Falls for producingelectric power, he

B.
The prospects of harnessingNiagara Falls to produce electric power was exciting
to Nikola Tesla, the inventor of alternating current, and so
he

C.
Excited about the prospectsof harnessing Niagara Falls to produce electric power,
Nikola Tesla, the inventor of alternating
current,

D.
Nikola Tesla, the inventorof alternating current, excited about the prospects
of harnessing Niagara Falls for the production of electricpower
and



E.
The inventor of alternatingcurrent, excited with the prospects of harnessing Niagara
Falls for producing of electric power,Nikola
Tesla

(Hint: 句子结构是否完整)

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解析:(正确答案:C)
A: Nikola Tesla 应为句子主词,所以划线部分最后一个单词 he 错误,相当于出现了两个主语 Subject; for doing 结构表示目的不及 to do 更有效。
B: 将 the prospects 作为主词改变了句子的重心,主语改变,逻辑错误;The prospects…was exciting 逻辑错误;and so 连词变化,逻辑错误。
C: 正确。
D: and 连词变化,逻辑错误。and 前没有谓语 Verb,句子结构错误。
E: for doing 结构表示目的不及 to do 有效;excited with 用法错误,应为 excited about 形容词结构作定语修饰主词 the invent0r…,而 Nikola Tesla 与 the inventor of…都是主词,重复。

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2.    Minivans carry as many as seven passengers and, compared with most sport utility vehicles, cost less, get better gas mileage, allow passengers to get in and out more easily, and have a smoother ride.

A.    Minivans carry as many as seven passengers and, compared with most sport utility vehicles, cost less,
B.    Minivans, which carry as many as seven passengers, compared with most sport utility vehicles, they cost less,
C.    Minivans carry as many as seven passengers, in comparison with most sport utility vehicles, and have a lower cost, they
D.    Minivans, carrying as many as seven passengers, compared with most sport utility vehicles, cost less,
E.    Minivans, which carry as many as seven passengers, compared with most sport utility vehicles the cost is lower, and they
(Hint: 主语是否多余)

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解析:(正确答案:A)

按照逻辑意思可以发现,动作 carry 和后面几个动作并不平行。这个句子的逻辑关系是,

“Carry”这个动作没有参加“compared”,而是自成一个层次,而另外四个动词是“compared”

的项目,它们另外组成了一连串的动词平行结构。故而 A 中的第一个“and”是必要的。

A:正确。

B: They 主语赘述,句子简略后可以很容易看出:minivans,they cost less; compared with most sport utility vehicles 可能修饰 passengers,造成歧义;

C: Run-onsentence,两套主谓宾结构;打破了原来逻辑含义合理的各动词平行结构; D: compared with most sportutility vehicles 可能修饰 passengers,造成歧义;


E:前半个分句有两个主语Minivans 和 the cost; Minivans, which carry as many as seven

passengers成了悬垂结构;打破了原先逻辑含义合理的各动词平行结构。



2.        Modifier 修饰语:A set of words that provide additional information in a sentence beyond the CORE SUBJECT and VERB.

a)        Adjective – 形容词 – Example – Happy, Large, Fast
b)        Nonessential Modifier – A modifier that even if you remove it from the sentence, the sentence still makes sense 删了不影响
The large house, which was built in 1900, is Blue.
c)        Essential Modifier – A modifier that even if you remove it from the sentence, the sentence WILL NOT make sense. 删了会 影响

例题:
1.        The proposed health care bill would increase government regulation of health insurance, establish standards that would guarantee wider access to people with past health problems and to workers changing jobs who otherwise could be uncovered for months.
A.        establish standards that would guarantee wider access to people with past health problems and to workers changing jobs who
B.        establishing standards that would guarantee wider access to people with past health problems and to workers who are changing jobs and
C.        to establish standards that would guarantee wider access to people with past health problems and to workers who change jobs that
D.        for establishing standards that would guarantee wider access for people with past health problems and workers changing jobs who
E.        for the establishment of standards that would guarantee wider access for people with past health problems and workers who are changing jobs that
(Hint: 逻辑和修饰语)

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解析:(正确答案:C)
A: 有两个谓语动词,错误。
B: 正确。establishing 作主句的伴随状语。因为议案增强了医疗保险制度,所以此议案就建立了标准给很多人提供保障。
C: the bill increases regulation to establish...议案增强了医疗保险的制度,增强的目的是为了建立标准给很多人提供保障。这句话的逻辑没有问题。但是 that could be uncovered 不能跳跃修饰 workers。
D: 不平行,应该改为 to workers。另外 have access to 是固定搭配。
E: 不平行,错误同 D。结构罗嗦。

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2.    Turning away from literary realism to write romantic stories about the peasant life and landscape of northern Sweden, in 1909 Selma Lagerlöf was the novelist who became the first woman and was also the first Swedish writer to win the Nobel Prize for Literature.
A.    Turning away from literary realism to write romantic stories about the peasant life and landscape of northern Sweden, in 1909 Selma Lagerlöf was the novelist who became the first woman and was also the first Swedish writer to win
B.    She turned away from literary realism and wrote romantic stories about the peasant life and landscape of northern Sweden, and novelist Selma Lagerlöf in 1909 became the first woman as well as the first Swedish writer that won
C.    Selma Lagerlöf was a novelist who turned away from literary realism to write romantic stories about the peasant life and landscape of northern Sweden, and in 1909 she became the first woman in addition to the first Swedish writer winning
D.    A novelist who turned away from literary realism to write romantic stories about the peasant life and landscape of northern Sweden, Selma Lagerlöf became in 1909 the first woman and also the first Swedish writer to win
E.    As a novelist, Selma Lagerlöf turned away from literary realism and wrote romantic stories about the peasant life and landscape of northern Sweden, in 1909 becoming the first woman and also the first Swedish writer that won
(Hint: 句子结构,修饰语的位置)

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解析:(正确答案:D)
A: in 1909 放在 Selma 前面不好,turning away 的修饰对象 Selma 被隔远了;in 1909 Selma Lagerlöf was the novelist 荒谬的说 SL 只有在 1990 年才从现实主义文学成为浪漫小说家;
and 后面的多处了 was 使得原义变为 SL 是第一个女人,意思不对,应去掉 was。
B: She 无指代,and novelist Selma 使得两个分句分裂成两个人的事;turn away from…to… 改为了 from…and…少了"弃前取后"的逻辑关系;as well as 有主次之分,分开了 first woman 和 first Wewdish writer 的平等关系,使得 that 仅指代了 Swedish writer,使得前面became the first woman 成为第一个女人,意思不对。The first…to do sth 正确用法。
C: who 的指代错误同 A。the first…winning 习惯用法错误;in addition 的存在同样使句子含义犯了成为"第一个女人"的错误。
D: 正确;在这里如果去掉了 also 反而不好了,如果就 X and Y,一般是用于指两个不同的人,如果有了 also,一般指的是对同一个对象的两个描述,不过去掉 also 问题也不大; first woman 和 first Swedish writer 必须平起平坐(凭这点就能排除 A,B,C)。
E: from…and 错误同 B;in 1909 的位置不好,最好是放在 becoming 后面;that 不能指代人。

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1.
Sentence
Core= independent
clause +essential
modifiers (不能再删了)

例句:The Red Car [that was imported from Germany,][which is a beautiful country in Europe,] cost John, [who lives in LosAngeles,] $5,000 in import duties.

例题:



1.
About 5 million acres in theUnited States have been invadedby leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that givesmouth sores to cattle,
displacinggrasses and other cattle food andrendering rangeland
worthless.




A.
States have been invaded by leafy spurge, aherbaceous plant from Eurasia with milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattle,displacing grasses and other cattlefood and rendering

B.
States have beeninvaded by leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia, with milky sap, thatgives mouth sores to cattle and displaces grasses and other cattle food,
rendering

C.
States have been invaded by leafy spurge, aherbaceous plant from Eurasia having milky sap that gives mouth sores to cattleand displacing grasses and othercattle food, rendering

D.
States, having been invaded by leafy spurge, aherbaceous plant from Eurasia with
milkysap that gives mouth sores to cattle, displaces grasses and other cattle food, and
renders

E.
States, having been invadedby leafy spurge, a herbaceous plant from Eurasia that
has milky sap giving mouth sores to cattle and displacinggrasses and other cattle foodrendering

(Hint: 句子结构是否完整)

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解析:(正确答案:B)
A: 是 with 修饰欧亚大陆,表明欧亚大陆有乳白色汁液,不对。that 修饰 sap 意思是汁液让动物得溃疡, 逻辑不好。displacing 和 rendering 在语义上不能构成平行
B: 正确,gives...and displaces...结构平行,语义合理 C: 正确;在这里如果去掉了 also 反而不好了,如果就 X and Y,一般是用于指两个不同的人,如果有了 also,一般指的是对同一个对象的两个描述,不过去掉 also 问题也不大;first woman 和 first Swedish writer 必须平起平坐(凭这点就能排除 A,B,C)。
C: that 引导的定语从句中 gives...and displacing...结构上不平行
D: 缺少谓语动词。
E: 缺少谓语动词。

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4. Conjunction 连 词
a).    Coordinating conjunction: 并列连词 (Puts two Independent Clauses together.)
Frequent Coordinating Conjunctions: FANBOYS – For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So. 并列、转折、选择、因果
例句: Tony eats a lot and Tony enjoys watching TV.
b).    Subordinating conjunction: 从属连词 (从属连词, 用来引导名词性从句和状语从句。连词用于引导 从句以形成句子的一部分或修饰句子的构成要素。 由从属连词所引导的句子叫从句,而含有从句 的句子叫复合句)

Frequent Subordinating Conjunctions: Although, Because, While, Though, Unless, Before,
After, If
例句:Although she was not hungry, she ate dinner with her parents.

例题:
1.    Mauritius was a British colony for almost 200 years, excepting for the domains of
administration and teaching, the English language was never really spoken on the island.
A.    excepting for
B.    except in
C.    but except in
D.    but excepting for
E.    with the exception of
(Hint: 是否缺少合适的连词)

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解析:(正确答案:C)
A: 为了展示出“对比”和避免逗号连接两个句子,这里必须用连词 but; except 在这是介词,不是连词; In the domains 是习惯用语
B: 无 but 造成了 逗号连接两个句子,except in 是介词短语
C: 正确。except in 不是说就是连用的习语,而是 in the domains of. 意思是,除了这一领域
except in/by/to:除了
D: excepting 常用于否定句中,excepting 是动词 ing 的形式 ; 表伴随语意更不可理; E: 逗号连接两个句子 ,无 but; with 引导的结构有修饰前半句或者后半句的起义

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5. Trigger  words 信号词
Trigger Words are words that gives a flag or clue that a certain kind of issue is being tested.
例如,unlike 和 less…than… 是比较结构的信号词

例题:
1.    Unlike most severance packages, which require workers to stay until the last day
scheduled to collect, workers at the automobile company are eligible for its severance package even if they find a new job before they are terminated.
A.    the last day scheduled to collect, workers at the automobile company are eligible for its severance package.
B.    the last day they are scheduled to collect, workers are eligible for the automobile company’s severance package
C.    their last scheduled day to collect, the automobile company offers its severance package to workers.
D.    their last scheduled day in order to collect, the automobile company’s severance package is available to workers.
E.    the last day that they are scheduled to collect, the automobile company’s severance package is available to workers.

(Hint: 信号词 unlike)

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解析:(正确答案:D)
A: severance packages 同 workers 概念不对等
B: severance packages 同 workers 概念不对等
C: severance packages 同 the automobile company 概念不对等
D: 正确, 比较双方概念对等
E: 逗号 are scheduled to collect 的主语只能是 packages,但 they 是指代 workers,出现指代错误。另一种看法:从逻辑上 are scheduled to collect 修饰的是 day,而原句中修饰的是
they(works)不符合逻辑

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Sentence Correction: Part 2
Parallelism 并列/排比
排比:把两个或以上意义相关或相近、结构相同或相似、语气相同的词组或句子并排在一起,就叫做排比。
Parallelism 信号词:
-    Open Maker: and, or, rather than
-    Closed Maker: both/and, either/or, neither/or, not/but, not only/but also, from/to

例题:
1.    Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson were written over a period
beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering her letters to anyone else.

A.    Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering
B.    Dickinson were written over a period that begins a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ended shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber
C.    Dickinson, written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and that ends shortly before Emily’s death in 1886 and outnumbering
D.    Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother, ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, and outnumbering
E.    Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber
(Hint: 通读全句,大致理解意思,即:Emily Dickinson 给他的 sister in law 写的信是
outnumber(远远超过) to anyone else.)

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解析:(正确答案:E)

A: outnumbering 不对。outnumbering her letters to anyone else 中的 outnumber 不是与谓语动词 were written 同时发生的动作。所以不是第一种情况,也不是表示整个句子的结果。所以不能用分词形式放在句尾。 出现了时间断层,不能表伴随。
B: 选项是一个平行的问题,请看题目标注 begins 和 ended 不平行;outnumber 和 were
written 没有连词连接,使得 outnumber 显得很多余。
C: 成分残缺,无主动词; 选项还不平行 beginning 和 that ends ;
D: 成分残缺,无主动词 ;ending 和 beginning 无连词连接,结构混乱; outnumbering 错误的和 beginning 和 ending 并列 修饰 period.逻辑不合理。
E: 正确。关于时间的信息很好的包含在两个分词修饰语中,并且修饰语用逗号隔开,结构清晰
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